The city of Oruro, capital of the department of the same name, occupies the central part of the Bolivian high plateau, at 3,706 m.s.n.m. It is bordered on the north by the Department of Potosí, on the east by the Department of Cochabamba and Potosí and on the west by the Republic of Chile, its territorial surface covers an area of 53,688 km2. Its climate is cold, its average annual temperature is 9 degrees Celsius, Oruro is a city that is characterized by the niner, Currently the most important mining companies are: San Jose, Huanunin and Intiraymi, the latter dedicated to gold mining. In this region also the Poopo lake. The year 2003 was recognized as a RAMASA site, due to the quality of the ecosystem for the preservation of the biodiversity of the Andean fauna.
THE CARNIVAL OF ORURO
It is one of the largest and most famous folkloric expressions in the country. Its origin goes back to the colony and joins the regional traditions. At the Oruro Carnival, all the folk groups participating in the "Main Entrance" visit the Socavón temple to request permission and promise to dance in honor of the Virgen del Socavón during three consecutive Carnivals.
DATA OF TOURIST INTEREST
Mining Museum - The Museum and the Church of the Socavón - National Museum of Anthropology - House of Culture - Church of Santo Domingo - Church of San Francisco - Zoological Park - Oruro Carnival - Spas with thermal waters.
Two streams of human settlement converged in the current territory of Oruro, originally the Urus and later the Kollas. Within the Urus families are "Lo chipayas" or also Uru-chipayas, who in their former displacement occupied the entire northern part of Lake Coipasa, now converted into salt. Currently the Chipaya habitat is located in a plain of 3,940 m.s., within the Atahallpa Province of the Department of Oruro, with the Lauca River being the one that favors the sacrificed agricultural activity of cereals such as; the quinoa, cañahua and ajara, being the climate in those places extremely cold arriving the winter at 30º C below zero.
The antiquity of this culture goes back at least 2500 BC. the current Chipayas claim to be descendants of the Chullpas to explain their legendary origin. It is one of the oldest cultures of this Andean area, however it is a current ethnic group that still maintains a large percentage of its cultural values, customs and ethnic identity. The current Chipaya community has no less than 1,500 inhabitants, generally trilingual, as they speak Chipaya, Aymara and Spanish. Their profound Andean religiosity makes them venerate mainly the Lauca River as a natural source of life, the Coipasa lagoon and the surrounding hills recognized as Mallkus protectors of their villages; with the irruption of Catholicism to the area also venerate San Felipe, San Jerónimo Santa Ana, through interesting patronal festivities and presterio.
In the social and political order, they are organized into two parts: Cantón Chipaya and Cantón Ayparavi, which in turn are divided into two Ayllus: Tuanta and Tajada, seeing everyone in an environment of mutual understanding and reciprocity; They still maintain ethnic unity and the separation of the members of the community is transitory, usually for work. The communities are under the command of the "Jilakata", which is called the Peasant Mayor and the old Council of Elders that remains a true institution. The Chipaya house is one of the most remarkable features of its culture and its architectural aesthetics, since its room is of interesting circular base built with "tepes" that are adobes cut directly from the ground. The roof is made of straw and mud supported by a braided head. of straw, its doors are always oriented to the east and are made of cactus wood. Another unique feature is undoubtedly his original clothing, in man is the "anger" consisting of a rectangular piece of wool spun in white and brown listing leaves an opening in the center for the head and at the sides this stitching allowing the arms to come out, they also have a white woolen shirt, the "liwi" or bowler and the "kala" or bag that hangs from the waist.
In women, clothing preserves its most authentic and original forms; They wear a white shirt or "little" on which they put the "urku" black or brown, which consists of two pieces woven together laterally and supported by "moles" at shoulder height, a thin belt called " chumpi "girdles the waist, on the back they are covered with another piece called" llijlla "and on the head they use the" incuña "of quadrangular shape also of the same woven invoice. Another outstanding feature of Chipaya women is the hairstyle that consists of an infinity of thin braids that cover the head in its entirety. To make this hairstyle, they resort to many women of the neighborhood and the tranzado lasts two or three months. It is also an outstanding feature the use of the Chipaya language maintained until today almost without alterations.
Apart from their ancestral ritual ceremony dedicated to their deities, Mallkus and pachamama, they celebrate the festivity of the Virgen del Carmen starting on July 15 that they join with that of Santa Ana. This ancient highland town of singular ethnic minority must be respected and supported by constituting an important ethnic and cultural heritage of Bolivia.
In the Sajama National Park and the National Integrated Management Area, the panorama changes because the landscape is a spectacle, wide mountains, extensive plains of bofedales and herds of llamas, alpacas and vicuñas. This area was declared a reserve in 1939 to protect the exaggerated exploitation of its scenic and biological resources. This park is located in the province of Curahuara de Carangas in the department of Potosí, the route begins in the city of La Paz, from where you take the road to Patacamaya - Tambo burned, in this section you can visit the Church of Calamarca, dating from the 16th century and keeps one of the best series of pictures of angels, hot springs are an important part of this tour and are visited by tourists, for its medicinal properties it is recommended to combat bone problems. The park has an area of 100 thousand hectares, there are colonial churches and routes of ascension to the snowy Sajama.