The city of Potosí, founded by the Spaniards in 1545 at the foot of the Cerro Rico or Sumaj Orko due to the immense auriferous riches that they found there and exploited, was the most important colonial emergency because there the mills were built for the milling and amalgamation of silver counting for the seventeenth century with more than 100 thousand inhabitants, that is, it had more population than London or Paris; Due to its mineral wealth, beautiful churches, convents and palaces were built, which today constitute the main reason for UNESCO to have declared it a World Heritage Site.
FESTIVAL OF LOS CHUTILLOS
In this important colonial city the interesting "Fiesta de Chutillos" or San Bartolomé takes place, which takes place every 24th of August in the town of La Puerta, Cueva del Diablo or San Bartolomé creek, a site located approximately 10 Km. the City of Potosí, there is an old neoclassical church built to devotion of San Bartolomé where colonial images of the seventeenth century are venerated as those of the patron saint Bartolomé and San Ignacio, in this place a deeply rooted religious and popular festivity takes place by the potosina population that is rich in traditions and legends that are woven from the colony and are kept alive in the collective memory.
The "Festivity of Chutillo" is being prepared long before by the population and authorities, but it is in La Víspera that the party practically begins in the town of La Puerta, where "the interns" perform the traditional evening for the Patron Saint and the day 24 riders called "Chutillos" meet in the plaza from the early hours of the morning, who charter either horse, mule or donkey to ride. The luxuriously dressed riders are the soul of the party and gallop towards the cave of the devil where they have placed a cross so that the devil who is imprisoned according to the old legend does not escape, and then they go to the church of the Patron Saint where they celebrates a mass and many parishioners take the opportunity to baptize their children and sponsor the health masses; then the procession headed by the two saints Bartholomew and Ignatius, which is accompanied by a band and zampoñas. Afterwards we proceed to the folkloric entrance composed by different dancers that dance morenada, kullawas and caporales in honor of the Patron; after the eleven mass the typical dishes and drinks are served
As of 3 o'clock in the afternoon, they start to return to the city and the "Chutillos" according to the tradition must do it riding on their backs to avoid that the devil comes to the city riding the same beast. In the city of Potosí is promoted for this date a great folkloric festival where a large number of dancers dressed in colorful clothing participate. The next day 25 August, in the house of the intern gives place to the party of "Majtillo" that is the waiter or young teenager, where you dance especially cueca and wayño, at the door of the house arches of silver , flowers, banknotes and fruits, being the general hubbub with much waste of joy.
Day 26 is the day of "Tapuquillo". Whose meaning would be "Leave me", auction or end of the party, at that time the intern is designated for the party next year who will take charge of it. In short, it is a festival that has its roots in pre-colonial times due to its legends and is transformed and consolidated during the colony. Becoming the most original and characteristic party of Potosí.
SALAR DE UYUNI
The southern region of the department of Potosí, is an area of singular interest from both a landscape and ecological point of view, for those who wish to enjoy nature manifested in quite peculiar forms, some of them unique in their kind.
The most used route departs from the city of Uyuni (3,665 m.s.). Located in the center of the Department of Potosí, and goes towards the salt of the same name in northeast direction until arriving at the Colchani, population dedicated to the artisanal exploitation of the salt; From this place you begin to feel the imposing presence of the largest salt desert in the world. Salar de Uyuni (3,663 masl), has an area of Belgium, ten times the surface of Hong Kong or a fifth larger than the island of Puerto Rico.
It consists of approximately 11 layers with thickness ranging from 2 to 10 meters, the crust that is on the surface has a thickness of 10 meters, it is estimated that the amount of salt that exists in the salt is 64 billion tons. Additionally, the Salar is one of the largest reserves of lithium and has significant amounts of potassium, boron and magnesium.
In the Salar you can enjoy a landscape similar to that of the polar regions in which blue and white are combined, whose reflections generate images of inverted hills on the horizon. From Colchani, the trip to the center of the salar starts towards the Isla pescado, after approximately one hour of travel, in the heart of the Salar, the island is wounded (10 Has.), The largest of a set that presents an isolated ecosystem as an oasis in the salar. The island is populated by a large number of cacti with heights greater than eight meters. This landscape added to the saline horizon make this place one of the best places for lovers of photography.
The trip in the Salar continues for approximately 72 kilometers until arriving at the outskirts of the military post of Colcha-K with destination to the population of San Juan, then follow the entrance bridge of the National Reserve of Andean Fauna "Eduardo Avaroa". In the reserve Eduardo Avaroa a tour is made in which you visit the Laguna Colorada, which has an impressive red color that varies depending on the weather conditions and the time of day. It is populated by three species of flamingos that make it one of the few places where these birds can be found together (sharing the nesting site). In a southerly direction, the trip continues until Sol de Mañana, where you can see fumaroles, geysers, volcanic wells dating back to the time of the formation of the earth. Afterwards we reach the Laguna Salada, to find thermal springs emanating from the Polques volcano, where you can take some baths. The final points of descent is Laguna Verde, a dazzling mirror of water that resembles a gigantic emerald that reaches a singular brightness during the afternoon.
NATIONAL RESERVE OF ANDEAN FAUNA "EDUARDO AVAROA" (REA)
Date of creation: 1973, its surface was enlarged in 1981
Area: 714,745 hectares.
Location: the REA is located southwest of the Department of Potosí in the Sud Lípez province, between 22º 00 and 22º54 south latitude and 66º 55 and 68º00 west longitude.
Altitude: the average altitude of the region is 4,000 m.s.
Climate: Dry winter (May to August) and rains during the summer (December to April). The average temperature is 2.3º Celsius and the average annual rainfall is 65 mm., The lowest temperatures are recorded during the months of May, June and July and frosts during all months.
The reserve is located in a region with irregular relief with extensive plains and plateaus flanked in the west by a volcanic cord (Cordillera) and west by heavily folded mountain ranges, in the area are a series of lagoons or water mirrors that have its origin in the desiccation of ancient paleologists, in rivers originated in the thaw and in some cases in springs.
Its vegetation is characterized by the strong presence of grass grasses (straw brava) that in some plains and slopes form semicircles, in places of greater humidity tholares can be found and in certain rocky ravines (between 4,300 and 3,700msnm), the associated keñua in some cases to large Yareta cushions.
The fauna is characterized by the presence of unique species that adapted to the extreme conditions of life in the region, some of them in danger of extinction. The three species of flamingos (Andean, Chilean and James) are those that give particularity to the Reserve.
Wildlife of interest and observation site: Of the avifauna of the region, the three species of flamingos that are found in some lagoons both outside and inside the reserve stand out.
The Chilean Flamenco (phoenicoparrus chilensis) known locally as "Tokoko" is of medium height (1.05 meters the male) is characterized by the salmon coloration with reddish cover of its plumage and the black of its rodent feathers, as well as by pink white beak with the black tip and its grayish celestial legs.
The Andean Flamingo (phoenicoparrus andinus) also known as Parina Grande and locally called "Chururu", is the largest (1.10 meters) its color is whiter than the other two strong pink, the third black plumage and part upper chest presents violet coloration; its beak is black in large part with the presence of yellow coloration at the beginning of it, its legs are yellow.
The Parina Chica (phoenicoparrus jamesi) known as "Jututu" by the inhabitants of the place, is the smallest of the three species (0.9 meters), the coloration of its plumage is pink and presents in the posterior third of its body less black plumage notorious that of the Andean flamingo, the beak is of less curvature than that of the other species and has yellow-orange coloration with a small black spot on the tip, its legs are red.
The main site where the three species are concentrated is Laguna Colorada. Which is one of the few nesting sites where the three species are combined and houses the largest population of the Parina Chica (phoenicoparrus jamesi) of South America. The presence of flamingos in Laguna Colorada is related to climatic conditions, from May to August a large part of the population leaves the lagoon leaving only a few adults and juveniles unable to fly; As of September, the presence of flamingos begins to increase again, with the largest number of the population registering in December and January; The best month to visit the reserve is November, both because of the numerous species and because of the weather conditions.
Additionally, there are other species of birds such as the horned soca (coot cornuta) in danger of extinction and other threatened as the Suri (pterpcmemia pennata)
The most representative mammals of the region are the vicuña, the vizcacha and the llama, among the domestic ones.
The red lagoon is the most important site in the region for the observation of flamingos and is a site of singular interest for the coloration of its waters; Its surface area is approximately 60 km2 and it is located at a height of 4,278 m.s., the average depth is 35 cm. And the temperature of its waters varies between 10 and -10 degrees Celsius.
Laguna Colorada is classified as a lagoon "Alto Andina-Salina" presents islands of Bórax in the northeast and southeast sectors, the color that is red due to the fine sediments of that tonality deposited on the surface and pigments of some types of algae.
This area of approximately 1 km2, located more to the south of the Laguna Colorada on the way to the Challviri salt flat, is characterized by intense volcanic and fumarolic activity, in the craters located in the region you can see lava intensely boiling; additionally, the fumaroles emit mixed vapors of water and hot steam that reach heights of 10 to 50 meters, products of the pressure with which these phenomena are emitted, allow us to appreciate a landscape that dates back to the epochs of earth formation.
Located at the southern end of the Reserve, Laguna Verde has an area of 17 km2
And it is divided into two bodies of water, its coloration is emerald green caused by the high magnesium content of its waters.
Next to this lagoon is the Llicancabur volcano with a height of 5,868 m.s.n.m., where you can practice mountaineering
- Wear warm clothes, the winds are strong and cold. The temperature drops markedly at night.
- It is also necessary to wear a protector and sunglasses, the radiation is strong due to the height of the region.
- In order to better observe flamingos, binoculars are required.
Stay a short time in the area of the Sun of Tomorrow, you can get dizzy and feel nauseous by inhaling the gases, to observe the fumaroles you do not need to be very close to them, always follow the preventive signage.
- If you travel independently, register your departure at the Regional Tourism Office in Uyuni and indicate the approximate time of your trip.
- Remember that this is a region in which the ecosystem is very fragile, avoid carrying products that generate garbage.
- The plastic is not biodegradable and is one of the biggest components of garbage, take care not to leave bags in the places where you make stops.
It is located in the Province of Chichas, known as the Lípez belonging to the Department of Potosí, it is a region full of privileges and beauty, it is located in the southern part of Bolivia, located in the Southern Cordillera of the Andes, it has a close relationship with the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile. A clear example is that UNESCO, declared Tupiza "Cultural Capital of Youth".
It is located in the province of Potosí ponds, is one of the most beautiful regions of Bolivia. It is a park available for Scientists such as: Anthropologists, Geologists and students who can visit the caverns that are 8 km away. Of the town.